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October 31, 2016

7 Steps to Great Makeup

7 Steps to Great Makeup - - -



1. Avoid wearing too much

Makeup is meant to enhance features not bring negative attention to you. That's what wearing too much makeup will do; it will bring you unwanted attention. Don't wear too much of anything such as:

i) Eyeliner: dark, thick eyeliner will make you look overdone and will ruin the rest of your makeup.

ii) Mascara: too much mascara looks fake and will flake. It looks especially bad if worn with thick eyeliner or dark blue eye eye shadow.

iii) Foundation: Make sure your foundation is the same color as your skin. Foundation is meant to protect and give the face a smooth look. The magic word is blend.

iv) Powder:The same holds true for powder - not too much. Also, be sure to blend your makeup so there are no obvious lineS

2. Lips

Apply lip liner to completely cover the lips, add color and your lipstick will stay on much longer. Make sure your lip liner doesn't show. Also, your lip color should match your skin tone; wear cool colors if you have cool coloring and warm colors if you have warm coloring. If you want to make your lips look smaller, keep your liner on the inside of your lips. However, if you decide to make your lips look larger, going outside the natural outline of you lips is a mistake. This can look quite messy and unnatural.

3. Appropriate makeup
Wear makeup that is appropriate for the occasion. If you are going to the beach you shouldn't wear the same or as much makeup as you would if you were going dancing. Also, when you are in daylight your makeup should be a lighter than when you are out for the evening.


4. Too little or no makeup

Some women don't wear makeup because they are not sure how to use it and are afraid of being overdone. If you are unsure, start will light colours in your shade. Start slowly and add one product at a time. Maybe start with foundation, add mascara, blush or lipstick. If you are not used to wearing makeup, using a lot a first may be a little too much for you, so start slowly. The bottom line is a little is better than none. If you are still unsure seek professional advice.

5. Overall look

When your makeup is completed it should look natural. That means avoiding colours that clash. If you have dark skin and hair you will look better in darker shades; light colours will make you look washed out. If your hair and skin tone are light, light colours will look better on you. Dark makeup will make you look older and harsh. If you have oily skin, first use oil control moisturizer and foundation. Then be sure to wear loose powder, keeping pressed powder with you for touch ups.


6. Hair color

Your hair color should also be in harmony with your skin. If you have dark hair and you want to add color, keep it close to the same shade. If you have light hair, use light colors. As you age your skin will lighten, so should your hair color. One last thing about hair color - if you do color you hair be sure you keep it up, don't let your roots show.

7. One last thing

Keep makeup looking fresh all day by doing regular touch ups. Don't let your makeup fade or crease. Smile!!!


6 Common Cosmetic Dental Procedures Explained



Cosmetic dentistry helps many people get a confident smile, and also corrects many dental anomalies. Six of the most common cosmetic dental procedures are:

1. Dental bonding: This is carried out to fill gaps in the teeth and cover stains and chips. The process involves the application of a composite resin material to the tooth. The material, which is available in several shades, is sculpted to cover the desired area. It is then dried using a high-intensity light or a chemical. The process does not cause any discomfort to the patient except when a minor tooth roughening is done. Dental bonding does not require more than one visit to the dentist and is relatively inexpensive as compared to other dental restoration techniques. 

2. Tooth contouring and reshaping: This quick, inexpensive, and non-invasive procedure is used to fix dental issues such as overlaps, shallow pits and grooves in the enamel, worn edges, and chipped teeth. The dentist uses a polishing instrument for the removal of a tiny amount of enamel and the tooth is reformed. The enamel removal procedure is carried out only after dentists confirm through x-rays that the teeth requiring reshaping are strong enough to withstand some enamel loss. The process is completed with the smoothing and polishing of the edges of the newly contoured tooth. The process usually requires a follow-up visit after the first visit.

3. Mouth guards and night guards: These are plastic appliances that offer protection to the mouth during sports and also while sleeping. Mouth guards disperse shock caused by violent contact and thus protect the head and neck. They are prepared using a cast of the teeth. The mouth guards can be stock, mouth-formed, or custom-made. Night guards prevent bruxing between teeth during sleep. They are ideal for people with worn teeth, those who suffer aches in the jaws, and people with teeth that are sensitive to cold. 

4. Halitosis or bad breath: The breakdown of food particles by the bacteria present under plaque, in the crevices on the tongue, and between teeth leads to the generation of volatile sulfur compounds (VSC) that cause bad breath. Periodontal disease is also a cause of halitosis. Dentists determine the amount of VSC being generated by using a halimeter. Treatment usually involves following a prescribed oral hygiene routine that may include the use of irrigators, artificial saliva, tongue scrapers, etc. 

5. Tooth whitening: This treatment is useful for removing stains that appear due to the consumption to tea, coffee, cigarettes, and wine. Whitening is carried out using bleaching gel, which is usually hydrogen or carbamide peroxide. The gel breaks down releasing oxygen molecules that penetrate the enamel and dentin and disintegrate the stains. The time required for results to appear depends upon the source of the stain and varies from a few hours to a few weeks. 

6. Crowns and bridges: Teeth that need repair after an accident or excessive decay can be treated by using a crown, which is an artificial replacement for the upper portion of the tooth. A bridge involves placing an alternate tooth that is held in place using two crowns that are bonded on adjacent teeth.


5 Tips To Improved Skin Care

Your skin is the first thing that people notice about you and that is why a proper skin care regimen is so important.  There are many products that claim to help improve skin tone and promote a flawless complexion, but the truth is that there is no such thing as instant results.  An effective skin care regimen is one that is done consistently over a time before results will begin to develop.


Skin Care Tip 1:
Always use some type of exfoliation product, which will help to remove old skin cells and other debris and particles from your skin.  This will expose the healthy cells and rid your body from the old ones.

Skin Care Tip 2:
If possible, avoid constant sun exposure and tanning beds.  In addition to being dangerous where health is concerned, these may also lead to early signs of aging.  Everyone loves a suntan, but there is no reason to sacrifice your skin or your health in order to achieve it.  Therefore, many individuals opt for a self-tanning lotion instead.  Back in the day, these products had a tendency to turn the skin orange, but that is no longer the case.  Improvements have helped to give self-tanning products a more natural, streak-free look.  Before applying the lotion to your entire body, apply it to a small test area just to make sure there is no irritation.

Skin Care Tip 3:
If your lips tend to become chapped in the winter months or wind burnt at other times, using lip balm or lipstick will help to protect the lips from natureís worst.

Skin Care Tip 4:
Dry or cracked skin can be very unbearable.  Not to mention the discomfort of tight red skin, it can be downright embarrassing.  A container of Pacquin Plus hand & body cream will eliminate soreness, redness and help to add moisture back to dry skin.

Skin Care Tip 5:
Do not use products that irritate your skin in any way, including soaps that have harsh ingredients.  If possible, use a moisturizing soap or that which is designed for sensitive skin.
In addition to these tips, skin care products are available as commercial or prescription based treatments.  A dermatologist is often consulted for matters relating to acne or other skin disorders, especially if they are severe.  Many skin care enthusiasts also believe in using plenty of moisturizing body lotion in order to replenish the skinís natural moisture, which is often stripped in todayís harsh environment.

The information in this article is to be used for informational purposes.  It should not be considered as, or used in conjunction with, professional medical advice.  Consult your doctor prior to beginning any skin care regimen or if you have been diagnosed with any disorder involving the skin.

5 Tips to Finally Get Rid of Cellulite

Doesn't it seem as though summer is coming a bit quicker this year?  Each day brings us one step closer to busting out the bathing suits and baring our bodies.  This is the time of year when many people, women in particular, start scrutinizing their body closer than ever.  My inbox is proof of this.  I have decided to write an article about the number one question of last week- how to banish cellulite.

I was a bit surprised at the many misconceptions surrounding cellulite.  A lot of women asked if such-and-such cream would work, if they should stop eating cottage cheese or if surgery was their only option.



What exactly is cellulite and what is the best way to get rid of it?

Cellulite is nothing more than additional fat cells stored in your body.  We all have connective tissue that separates fat cells into little compartments.  Women have honey-combed shaped compartments and men have a crisscross pattern.  The honey-combed shape compartments are the reason some women have dimply thighs, or cottage cheese looking arms.

Getting rid of cellulite is simple, but not necessarily easy.  The only way cellulite can be reduced is to reduce overall body fat.  You cannot spot reduce or rub a cream on it.  You cannot starve yourself either.  The only way to rid yourself of cellulite is to follow these 5 highly effective, simple, and to-the-point tips.

1) Eat 5-6 small meals throughout the day.  Each meal should be 2-3 hours apart.  Each meal should contain one protein and one carb.  The first meal should be eaten within an hour after waking.

2) Drink a cup of water at each meal.

3) Rest properly.  This means taking at least 48 hours between strength training the same muscles, and it also means getting at least 7-8 hours of sleep per night.  Lastly, it means taking 1-2 days off from exercising per week.

4) Cardio should be done at different intensity levels and different session lengths.  Consider doing a low intensity/long session, a high intensity/short session and a few medium intensity/medium length sessions per week.

5) Strength train each muscle 1-3 times per week.  You should lift a proper weight and perform the proper amount of sets/reps for your strength training method.  If you need more guidance or exercise ideas you can head over http://www.strength-training-woman.com

All of the above things combined will result in cellulite reduction.  There are no miracle creams or secrets.  Itís all about good old fashioned working out.  Having said that, workout smarter and not harder!  Get on a great program that is tailored to your body and your goals.  Everyone is different, but following these 5 tips practically guarantees your cellulite will vanish.

5 Steps To Perfect Hair


Your hair is your crowning glory. Look after it and it will shine for all the world to see. You donít always need expensive treatments, or visits to a hair salon to manage your hair professionally. Thereís so much you can do yourself.

1. For shiny, healthy hair think first of your bodyís intake. Your hair is really just a reflection of what you are inside. A good balanced, nutritious and healthy diet will do more to make your hair shine than any shampoo or conditioner. And drink eight to ten glasses of water a day too; hair is 25% water, so donít let yours go thirsty!

2. Dry your hair after washing in the ambient temperature of your room after using an absorbent towel to soak up the excess moisture, but donít rub hard. If possible, donít use blow-drying, flat irons, curling irons or hot rollers. Artificial heating will leave your hair brittle and damaged in time. Be natural whenever you can.

3. Prevent unnecessary hair damage by using the right kind of hairbrush. Only comb wet hair with a wide-tooth comb, combing from end to root, but avoiding touching the root. Detangling wet hair with a hard steel comb can create a lot of damage, so donít!

4. Remove trichoptlosis, or split ends, like this: take small sections of your hair and carefully twist them in a gentle downward motion. The split ends will stick out. Using sharp scissors, carefully cut into the twisted section, but not right through, to remove the damaged cuticles and leave a natural layered look. Cut roughly the same amount from each twist to balance the effect.

5. Hair loss can be slowed, or even reversed by applying a few simple tips, though they probably wonít cure an underlying condition. Biotin can help to regenerate hair follicles: blend bananas with honey, yoghurt and low-fat milk, and drink it daily. Supplements such as Vitamin B6, zinc and saw palmetto will help too, but eliminating stress and getting plenty of sleep may work just as well.

We are all obsessed with our hair, whether we are 9 or 90, male or female. Look after yourself first and foremost and your hair will reflect that care and attention. The Biblical Samsonís strength lay in his fine flowing hair. Your hair reflects your strength too.

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4 Simple Methods to Clear Up Acne Scars

Acne scars can be a major inconvenience to anybody as it gives the idea of a bad skin complexion and sometimes causes a blow to oneís self confidence. Thatís why it is important to understand and know the different ways of treating and clearing up scars left by acne. Here you will understand the different methods of getting rid of acne scars. Hopefully in the end your acne scars will be a thing of the past and you may have more good news to your skinís health.


Aside from expensive acne scars treatment method which are found to be effective but not in the financial reach of most of the population, it is important to know that there are also some natural and much cheaper remedies in getting rid of acne scars. These are acne scars treatment methods that you can use to treat your acne scars right at the convenience of your home.

Natural acne scar treatment is the best solution method especially for those who possess a sensitive skin because natural treatment doesnít create side effects or rashes that may further destroy your sensitive skin.

1. One of the leading methods of clearing acne scars is the use of oatmeal cleanser. It helps eliminate other skin defect like blackheads and also help in the effective removal of acne scars. The oatmeal method consists of a mixture of rose water and an oatmeal powder; together they will form a paste that you can apply over the areas of your skin affected by the acne scars.

After applying it allow for about fifteen minutes to pass then afterwards rinse it with cold water, this process allows the oatmeal to close all existing skin pores and helps clear up a lot of your existing acne scars. To see the best kind of results you should do this everyday.

2. Another leading acne scar treatment option is the use of honey. Considered as one of the best natural remedy for acne scars, honey plays a great role in defeating bacteria that actually causes acnes. After cleaning your skin, you can then apply honey to the affected part of your skin. Wait after ten minutes before rinsing it with clean water.

3. Others include applying lotions and gels that are available at leading pharmacies and are highly recommended by professionals. The most important thing to remember when dealing with acne scars is that you should be patient with one kind of treatment and use it until the remnants of acne scars are completely taken care of.

4. Other well known acne scar treatment is the use of the process called laser resurfacing. Itís a process that involves a laser being applied to the affected skin and with that it will kill the bacteria that forms the acne scars. This can take from a number of minutes until an hour or so and usually takes between 2 to 10 days before the skin to heal completely.

Remember there are now a lot of ways to clear acne scars. Just be patient in looking for a method that can fit your needs.

4 Necessary Steps You Should Take When Thinking About Getting A Tattoo!

Obviously there is some concern about getting a tattoo because when you get a tattoo, you risk getting an infection, pain and wonder about the possibilities of infectious diseases. The process needs to be better understood.



1. Can I Get Infectious Diseases From Tattoo Needles?

There has been some concern recently regarding transmittable diseases (particularly Hepatitis-B and AIDS [HIV]) and tattoo shops. Just as in a dentist's office, as long as the area is strictly sanitized, your chances for infection will be greatly reduced.

2. Can I Get Aids From Tattooing?

When needles are passed from IDU to IDU and reused without sterilization, some of that blood remains in the syringe and is passed on to the next user. If infected blood is passed, the recipient can become infected with HIV, which leads to AIDS. 

Tattooing is VERY different from injecting drugs. The needles used in 
tattooing are not hollow. They do, however, travel back and forth 
through a hollow tube that acts as an ink reservoir. The tip of the tube is dipped into the ink, which draws a little into the tube.

3. Can My Tattoo's Get Infected? 

Not as long as you take care of your new tat. There is a section in the Ebook that covers healing methods in depth. Some people have trouble healing tattoos with colors they are allergic to. 


4. What Are Some Bad Things For My New Tattoo? 

Once it is healed, there is very little that will screw up a tattoo. The one exception is prolonged exposure to sunlight. (the other is scarring, but that is patently obvious). 

Well, unfortunately it is. The newer inks are better at resisting fading 
but whatever you do, if you spend lots of time in bright sunlight your 
tats will fade (over a lifetime, not over a week). Best to try and keep 
them out of bright sunlight. 

No one wants to become a cave dweller just to keep their tats looking good, so just use some common sense. Think of your tat as an investment--slather on that sunblock so it doesn't turn into a dark blob.

Tattoo art has become very popular and people are getting tattoo's for lots of reasons. Taking good steps in choosing the right tattoo, getting it applied properly and with the proper care is probably the most important things to consider when thinking about getting a tattoo. Read all you can about tattoo art safety and when you're ready to get your tattoo, you will feel much better about your decision!


3 Ways to Increase HGH (Human Growth Hormone) Amounts in Your Body

HGH has been touted lately for itís anti-aging possibilities.  The amount of HGH in our body peaks in our early 20ís and goes down drastically from that point.  Many people are rejuvenating themselves, and swearing by the results, by increasing HGH into their system



There are three delivery systems that add HGH into the system: homeopathic sublingual sprays, pharmaceutical injections, or pills that stimulate the release of HGH from the pituitary gland. With all three choices the goal is the same: to raise the measurable IGF-1 levels in the body in order to gain the youthful benefits. The short discussion below on all three therapies will help you discover which protocol is right for you.

Human Growth Hormone Pills:

When you buy a pill form of HGH you should know right up front that there is no HGH in the product.  Read the ingredients.  There are only stacked amino acids and other assorted stimulants.  Even though the product name might be ìHGH Releasor,î or ìHGH Precursor,î there is no HGH in the product.  It works by stimulating your Pituitary Gland into producing more HGH.

Thereís good news and bad news.  The good news is that it actually works.  The bad news is that it only works for 4-8 weeks.  Then your over-stimulated Pituitary Gland says, ìno mas,î and stops being stimulated.  Itís really a terrible tease because just when you start saying to yourself, ìhey this is great,î everything shuts down.  Just when you realize what youíve been missing, you lose it again.  

Additionally, I was scared away from this therapy by reports that taking stacked amino ìgrowth hormone pillsî can raise cortisol levels in your body, which is extremely unhealthy. So the choice then came down to putting the actual hormone into my body by way of shots or via oral sprays.

Human Growth Hormone Shots:

Almost all the HGH sites will tell you that the cost for shots ranges between $10,000 and $20,000 per year. It doesnít. You can easily find it available for around $3,000 per year and even lower if you go through Mexican pharmaceuticals. Needles today are very safe and generally painless. 

But sticking myself twice a day, twenty days per month, didnít seem like a routine a healthy person should be doing, no matter how quick and easy it is. Call me squeamish if you like, I donít care. This might suit some people, and if it does, you can consider going for it. Not me. 

Those taking HGH injections should be aware that a few problems have been reported with ìhighî or ìoverî dosages, so anyone using this protocol would be wise to be clinically monitored on a regular basis by a physician.

HGH Oral Spray:

So the HGH spray option was the one I chose, especially considering the fact that I didnít know if the product would deliver what retailers were claiming. It seemed to be the most benign, risk free, gentle, therapy that produced excellent results, and was reasonably priced between $500 and $1250 per year. 

The amounts of herbal and nutritional contents listed on a product label can be most misleading. Whatís important is not the nutritional content listed on the label, but rather how much of that nutrient is actually absorbed into the cells of the body.  Sprays provide excellent absorption when micro-sized beads or droplets of a nutrient are taken into the body through the tissue lining of the mouth or nose. Blood capillaries are extremely close to the surface in these areas and readily absorb HGH into the bloodstream. The flow of absorbed nutrients from this area of the mouth is to the Carotid Artery, then to the brain, and then on to the heart within 22 to 30 seconds. Within minutes, it is totally dispersed throughout the body.



As far as which spray is the best, itís my belief that if and when independent clinical trials are made of all the spray products they will all basically be close in effectiveness. They all contain the same amounts of Somatrophin (Human Growth Hormone). Some add a little bit of female this, some add a little bit of male that. I chose the one I thought was most homeopathically prepared because I knew more care would have been taken in its manufacturing and it would probably be more gentle on my system.

Learn as much as you can about Human Growth Hormone and make your own decision about which way you want to go. No matter what age you begin taking HGH you will enjoy the results.

3 Benefits Of Home Tanning Beds



Some people love the idea of owning tanning beds. A bed in your home will allow you to tan whenever you want, day or night. You wonít have to drive across town or rush to get to the salon before they close. Although they can be expensive, if you tan regularly, the investment may be well worth the money in the long run.

3 Things to Look for in Tanning Beds

The Style of the Bed
You basically have two choices in the style of your bed: a traditional horizontal bed and a standing booth. Unless you have a room or large space to devote to a horizontal bed, you may want to consider a standing booth. These take up less space in your home and can be placed in a corner. Basically, your preference and the amount of space you have available will dictate this choice. 

The Bulbs Used in the Bed
 The type of tanning bed bulbs used in a bed are the most important feature. Beds use either UVA and UVB rays or UVA only. There is controversy over which bulbs are safer for your skin. There really is no safe way to tan, and you should take precautions to protect yourself from damage to your skin, regardless of the bulbs used.

You need to know exactly which kinds of bulbs are used in your bed when it is time to replace them. Bulbs arenít interchangeable and you need to be sure to buy the right ones. Also, look at the placement of the bulbs. How easy will they be to replace? You will most likely be performing this task yourself and you want to be sure it will be easy to do. 

Extra Features
The best extra features to look for include a face tanner and a cooling system. The face tanner will help you get the ultimate tan all over your body. These have specially placed bulbs in the facial area that direct light to this area, which is difficult to tan for some people.

A cooling system is important if you get easily over heated inside a bed. The cooling fan will keep your skin from getting too hot. Make sure you donít overdo it in the bed with this feature. Just because you donít feel the heat, doesnít mean you arenít tanning. Staying in the bed too long contributes to over exposure and can be dangerous for your skin. 



Choices in Home Tanning Beds

Most home beds are traditional tan beds. These use typical bulbs that resemble fluorescent tubes. Another choice in beds are known as High Pressure Beds. These use high pressure quartz bulbs, rather than the traditional lamps. They are called high pressure because the gas in the bulb is slightly higher than the pressure in the atmosphere.

These beds allow you to tan on only one side at a time. You will need to turn over half way through your session. Many people find these to be more comfortable than traditional beds. These are normally found in salons, but you may come across one if you shop for used equipment.

Purchasing Used Tanning Beds

A used bed can be an affordable option to an expensive new home bed. In many cases, you can find a high quality bed at the price of a cheap bed. There are some things you should consider before purchasing a new bed:

o Make sure the bed you are considering meets the current federal and state safety regulations. These change often and you want to make sure the bed you buy is safe. A tanning salon owner is a good source of information regarding safety regulations. The internet is another good source of information, as most states post regulations for salon owners.

o Find out how often the bed was used. If it was originally used in a salon, it has probably gotten quite a bit of use. Sometimes beds that have been purchased for home use end up getting very little use. These can be great, giving you a little used bed at a substantially reduced price.

o Compare the price difference of the used bed with a brand new bed. The bigger the difference, the better for you.

o Ask about the working condition and any repairs that have been done. Also ask when the bulbs were last replaced and about the maintenance that has been done. You want a bed that has been properly maintained.

o Ask if there is any time left on the warranty.


Alternative Energy Source Pros and Cons



Due to increasing global energy consumption and the probable depletion of the worldís non-renewable energy source, ways of exploring and using alternative energy sources are being undertaken. Using alternative energy source can be both beneficial and difficult. Let us explore the different pros and cons of alternative energy source. 



A major advantage of renewable energy is that it is renewable therefore it is sustainable and will never run out. More importantly renewable energy produces little or no waste products that may pollute or has harmful effects on the environment. 

Some countries using renewable energy as another source of energy are also showing some economic benefits especially in many regional areas. Most of their projects are located away from the urban centers and capital cities. They were able to increase the use of local services as well as tourism. 

General disadvantage of using renewable energy is that it is difficult to generate large quantities of electricity similar to that of conventional fossil fuels. Another common problem among alternative energy sources is the reliability of the energy supply. Since it is naturally generated, renewable energy supply relies on the weather condition. 

Another drawback or disadvantage of alternative energy source is that it is relatively more expensive to set up the equipment necessary for generating the energy.

Here are the several advantages and disadvantages of alternative energy source.

ï Solar energy- the sun is a great source of energy since it is free and is efficient. It is possible to maximize the energy given by the sun to replace traditional electricity. But there are limitations, like areas at high latitude and places with frequent rains are places not capable of producing efficient solar energy.

ï Wind energy- wind is also an efficient electricity source. It is possible that wind energy can replace up to 20 percent of the total electric consumption in the future. It is also a very environment friendly source of energy since there are no harmful gases produced in the process of converting the energy. Location is a very important factor in using wind energy, high latitudes and coast lines are good places to set up windmills. A relatively big land area is also needed to put up sufficient number of windmills. 

ï Hydroelectric and tidal energy- both of these energy come from water. With hydroelectric energy it is mainly sourced from dams. Tidal energy, on the other hand, uses the natural tides of the ocean. Production of energy from water is another clean way of producing energy. However there are several disadvantages. Putting up river dams as sources of hydroelectric energy is very expensive, while tidal energy source depends much on the ocean. Since oceans tends to unpredictable there are only 9 places worldwide that are suitable for this kind of energy source. And tidal energy power plants are also said to provide negative effects on the migratory birds and the fishes. 

ï Biomass- biomass consists of fermented animal waste, agricultural crops, grains and other natural products. It can be used to produce an alcohol and also replace gasoline needs. It maximizes waste materials as an alternative energy source. A drawback, it that it still produces greenhouse gas. 

Alternative energy sources although it is renewable also pose some disadvantages. But its unfavourable effects are relatively smaller than the harmful effects of conventional fossil fuels. The hunt for a cost-efficient and environmental friendly alternative energy source does not stop on the latest discovery.

A Bright Future for Solar Energy: An Alternative Energy Source



I was first introduced to solar energy in the movie, Race the Sun with James Belushi and Halley Berry in the lead. It was a story about low- income and under achieving Hawaiian students encouraged by their teacher to join the Solar Car race. In the movie, a car shaped like a cockroach and covered with solar panels used the sunís rays as an alternative energy source to run the car. 

Solar energy is the light and the heat from the sun. Solar energy is free and its supplies are unlimited. There are n air and water pollution caused about by using solar energy. But there is still some impacts on the environment although indirect. 

Photovoltaic cells used to convert sunlight into electricity uses silicon and also produce some waste materials. There are also large solar thermal farms and these farms can also be harmful to the environment and desert ecosystems if not properly managed. 

Solar energy can be used on different aspects. Solar energy can be used in agriculture. Greenhouses (which is entirely different from greenhouse gas) convert solar light to heat to be maximized in enhancing the growth of plants and crops. Greenhouses has been around since the Roman times and modern greenhouses were built in Europe in 16th century. Greenhouses are still an important part of horticulture nowadays,

Daylight systems are also being used to maximize the energy released by the sun. It is used to provide interior illumination replacing the artificial lighting. Daylight systems include sawtooth roofs, light shelf, skylights, and light tube. Daylight systems when they are properly implemented can reduce lighting-related energy consumption by 25 percent. 



Solar energy can also be developed into solar thermal technologies which can be used for water heating, space heating, space cooling and process heat generation. Solar energy can also be used to distil water and make saline or brackish water potable or drinkable.

The solar water disinfection or SODIS involves exposing water-filled plastic polyethylene terephthalate or PET bottles. This process takes a long time, since the exposure time varies on the weather conditions. It requires a minimum of six hours to two days during days with overcast conditions. Currently, there are two million people in developing centuries use SODIS for their daily drinking water needs. 

Also sunlight can be converted into electricity using photovoltaics or PV. PV has been mainly used to power small and medium-sized things like a calculator powered by a single solar cell. There are homes powered by photovoltaics. Using solar energy for water and space heating is the most widely use application of solar energy. While ventilation and solar air heating is also growing in popularity.

There are three main ways in using solar energy. The main way of using and converting solar energy is by using the solar cells. Solar cells convert light directly into electricity. Solar cells are also called photovoltaic or photoelectric cells. 

Meanwhile, solar furnaces use a huge array of mirrors to concentrate on the Sunís energy into a small space and produced very high temperatures. Solar furnaces are also called ìsolar cookersî. A solar cooker can be used in hot countries to cook food. 

With all the benefits if using solar energy, there is still a downside for this alternative energy source. It does not work during night time. The cost of setting up solar stations is expensive, but the benefit of using solar energy when accumulated is so much more.

Vital Tips in Finding Your Passion





Some people take a lifetime in realizing what they really want to do and where they want to take their journey. It will be best if you will know the essentials in finding your passion while you are still young. This way, you will have lots of time to fulfill whatever you want to achieve and enjoy its effects and benefits as well.

It is not that easy to know what you really want to do for the rest of your life. There are people who end up pursuing a very unlikely route while giving in to what they really want to achieve whenever they have time for it. The reason for such varies. For some, they want to pursue their passion only after they have gone through several failures. 

To help you in this regard, here are some tips that you can follow.

1. You should look at things around you. Determine what or who inspire you to achieve whatever goals that you have in mind. They can be your loved ones or a specific person that encourages you to be better. These can also be things. What are the objects that create some sparks and enhance you to move forward? Use these objects and people in order to find out for yourself what you really want to happen. You can list down the things and people or places that may come to your mind when you are thinking about this so that you will keep track of what really matters to you.

2. Think about happy thoughts. Reminisce about the times when you were most happy in your life. What brought about such happiness? What made you happy? And while you are at it, you should also think about when was the last time when you experienced such moment. If it has already been a long time, what do you think caused such state?



3. You have to go back to the things that ignited your passion in the past. Read your favorite book. This may be a great time to find console digging through self-help books. This is especially true if you cannot talk to anyone close to you regarding the matter in ways that you hope to be understood.

4. If you are stuck in a job that you detest and your only reason why you are doing that is for money, then you will have a harder time in getting to know where your real passion lies. You may want to look back at the point before you entered this job. What were you back then or what were you thinking to achieve at that point? If you have already saved enough, you may want to consider quitting your current job. This way, you can allot more time in pursuing the things that you really want before it is already too late. 

5. You have to be open to whatever possibilities life may bring. You need to expect more than what you already have for you to acquire such and reach a level beyond your comfort zone. This can be done by being bold enough to take a risk at a time. It doesn't matter how small or how big it is. Once you start following your heart and mind to reach to the point where you think you will be happy and satisfied, you are on the right track. And finding your passion will be easier in the long run. 

Ways to Help You in Finding Your Passion




It may be easy to say that you are ready to make certain steps in finding your passion. But once you have set your mind to do these, you will soon realize that nothing is really simple and easy when it comes to this. There are so many things to think about and issues to be settled before it finally becomes clear what you really want to achieve.

Take One Step at a Time

To make sure that you will get to your goal no matter how long it takes, you should take the necessary steps to get there. The first thing that you have to fully understand is where you are going to. You have to define that goal. What do you really want to achieve? At this point, you must answer truthfully. You cannot aim to be a gold medalist in swimming when you don’t even know how to swim.

To help you in setting your goals, it will be best if you fully understand your strengths and weaknesses. You should comprehend all your limitations. You must not be too hard on yourself by wanting something that you don’t have the capacity to attain.


After you have defined your goals, it will be easier to plan how you are going to get there. But before you get serious with that, you have to analyze your current situation. Are you happy with where you are at? Because if you are, maybe you should rethink why would you still want to go on a different path?

On the other hand, if you feel like you are stuck on your current job and the circumstances where you are at, then you no longer have to think about what you should do. This is a very good sign that you have to move on. You have to get out of your current situation before it gets too late. Sometimes, people become too comfortable being in the zone where they are not required to excel. That should not be the case. This only means that you are no longer allowing yourself to grow. And when that happens, you may lose track of the goals that you have set to achieve.

When you have reached the point that you have forgotten about what you really want to attain, you must check on your old self. Go back to the point when you were still not where you are right now. Who are you back then? What did you dream of becoming and achieving at that point in your life? What were the things that made you happy and made you feel inspired? After realizing what you have missed, you must then think about what went wrong and what happened which caused for you to take a different route, farther than where you really would want to be.



Expand Your Horizon

No matter how young or how old you are, you still have chances to correct your mistakes. You still can take action in finding your passion. You can always go back to the point when you have chosen to turn right when you were supposed to turn left. Go back at that point in your life. And this time, make sure that you will take the direction to the left with a more positive attitude that this is really where you want to be.

Keyword Research For PPC

Both SEO (Search Engine Optimization) and PPC (Pay Per Click) require keyword research as part of the preparation stage. While some of the methods are similar, there are major differences when conducting keyword research for PPC when compared to research for SEO purposes. You will typically need to use different tools and certainly need to ascertain different information. A good SEO keyword may not be a good PPC keyword and vice versa; these two marketing styles should be treated separately in every aspect of the campaigns.



Individual Campaigns

Not only should you treat each page of your website as a separate campaign, you will need to differentiate between each keyword or key phrase you use on each page. This helps when it comes to optimization of your campaign because you can concentrate on the profitable keywords and avoid those that lose you money. Every website is different – it targets a separate set of demographics, offers different products, and uses unique content. Therefore, every site will have its own unique PPC campaigns to gain the greatest success and the best possible ROI.

Categories And Top Level Keywords

Before you begin using any software or keyword research tools you will have to do some manual brainstorming. Consider the different categories and top level keywords that are relevant to the page you are looking at. For example, if you sell trainers, then relevant keywords might include shoes, trainers, footwear, sports shoes, and so on. Keyword research tools will only work with the information you enter and so a thorough analysis can only be done with all the possible category connotations.

Locale

The Internet is a global marketplace, but your business may not be. If you only offer your services or products to a local catchment area, or to a specific country, make note of these areas too. By narrowing your keyword possibilities down to a region it is possible to greatly reduce the amount of competition that is vying for advertising positions. This, in turn, will reduce costs and potentially improve profits.

Generic Keywords

You should have an idea of the kind of keyword or phrase that your customers would use when looking for your type of business. Think of as many generic keywords as possible, at this stage. Later in the keyword research process, especially when using the appropriate tool, you will greatly narrow these generic keywords down to much more specific ones. For now, though, keep them general.

Tools And Software

When you have several lists of keywords and phrases, you will ideally need to use keyword research tools. Tools can provide information regarding the number of searches conducted on a monthly basis, while most of the PPC networks provide tools in order to see how competitive and, therefore, costly a keyword proves.



Streamlining Your Keyword List

Now, you need to choose targeted and relevant keywords that are likely to convert into clicks. You also need to ensure that those clicks won't prove too expensive when compared to the average value a customer spends. Once finished you should be left with a list of your most profitable keywords for your PPC campaign.

Ongoing Campaign Optimization

Like any advertising, PPC needs to be an ongoing process. Bid prices change and so too do customer and market trends, especially search trends. Keep an eye on all of the relevant figures to make sure that your ROI does not drop in any of your individual campaigns, and if any are seriously underperforming then pause or remove them.

PPC Keywords

Keywords are a vital part to a PPC campaign. Every page of your site will usually require several campaigns, each with separate keywords, in order to get the greatest results. Even once you've found the best balance between cost and revenue, it is imperative that you analyze and continually look to improve your PPC results.


Choosing The Right Keywords Is Of The Utmost Importance

Know what words your customers will use when searching.

You might know what your customers search for. If not, find out. Is it a description of  "pants" or "jeans?" One may be searched more often than the other, but why not target  both? How about "executive gifts?" Maybe "desk accessories" will broaden your web site  marketing strategy.


Ask all kinds of people. Get advice from people in all walks of life including management,  employees, customers, vendors, friends and family on how they would search for effective  search engine positioning keywords. Ask them how they would search for different products  and services. It's really not about what you think they would search for, its about what they  think. Believe me, they can many times be two totally different things.

Once you have successfully harvested a meaningful keyword list, remove any keywords that  are too targeted or not to specific. Also remember that keyword placement is important.  Try to put as many keywords as possible in the beginning paragraphs, and of course the  title line.

The higher the value of the keyword the more competition you will have. Every SEO utilizes  tools similar to the Overture Keyword Suggestion Tool and also know the value of a  keyword. The lower the value of the keyword the less competition we will have. 

We don't want to aim to low but we also don't want to aim to high. We need to find a middle  ground. For you that may be a keyword with a value of no less than 1000 and no more than  10,000. It will be up to you to determine what you deem reasonable. 


Also, the keywords should appear regularly throughout the opening Web page. It is  especially important that they appear frequently in the opening paragraphs.
However, resist the temptation to overuse keywords. The search engines can spot it and will  reduce your page rankings. Tools are available to help with optimal keyword density.  However, avoid software that writes the site's pages. Search engines can sniff these out, too.

A good rule of thumb is: Never sacrifice quality of content for keyword placement. This will  affect your page ranking. Most importantly, your site won't appeal to visitors. For a FREE  EBOOK detailing the fastest way to the top of the search engine, visit:
http://www.ride-to-the-top.com   or  
http://www.1stepsystem-premier.com


Types of Coffee Pots for Coffee Fanatics

Coffee drinking is a regular practice in almost every culture. People love various tastes of coffee from very strong to light coffee. Whatever be one’s taste, there are various types of coffee pots are available to suit each one’s needs. Various forms and sizes of coffee pots are available in diverse materials. You can make different tastes of coffee using various styles of coffee pots.





Coffee pots are one of most essential kitchen appliances. A broad range of simple and elegant coffee pots are available for casual or formal use. Coffee pots can make strong or smooth coffee based on the materials. Special clay coffee pots can enhance the taste of coffee. You can choose from a array of coffee pots including glass coffee pots and traditional coffee pots. Antique coffee pots are usually made of stone or clay and these requires little more care. Small coffee pot can brew a single cup of coffee, as large coffee pots can equal to twenty cups of coffee.

Drip maker is the most favored and most widely used type of coffee pot nowadays. The drip maker coffee pots come with lots of features like alarms, clocks and timers. In a drip maker, place coffee in a filter and then set it in a container which holds the water. The water is heated and pumped to the filter and coffee is dripped to the pot. The water temperature can be managed internally. Drip makers are available with two sorts of filters - basket type filter and cone shaped filter.

Percolators are one of the popular types of coffee pots. It is one of the old coffee vessels available in the market. These are used to make brew mild coffee. Two popular types of percolator coffee pots include stove top percolator and electric percolator. Vacuum coffee vessels are also available in many styles. Other varieties of coffee pots available include thermo fresh type coffee pots and satellite type coffee pots.


It is important to choose a coffee pot that suits your needs. Size is also an vital feature you have to consider prior to buying a coffee pot. Single cup coffee pots are ideal for family use. Coffee machines with temperature controls and detachable filters are more convenient choices. Coffee pots with timer option in which automatically shuts down after a certain time ensure safety features. You can locate coffee pots in various price ranges. Branded coffee pots are generally costly. You can get cost-effective coffee pots through online shopping.


You Can't Go Wrong With Chocolate Candy Gifts

It seems like there are nearly endless occasions for gift giving in today's world. We give gifts for birthdays, anniversaries, graduations and a host of other holidays and celebrations. I can hardly make it through a week or two without having the need to get a gift for some kind of celebration or another. So I like to be prepared and have a few gifts on hand at all times. I've become convinced lately that chocolate candy makes a great gift for almost all occasions.



There are many reasons why a chocolate candy gift is a great choice for almost any gift. First of all, and most obvious, is that who doesn't love chocolate? I'm not sure that I know anyone who doesn't appreciate some good chocolate every once in a while. So who wouldn't appreciate some great chocolate candy for their birthday or to celebrate another special day or holiday? Anyone who loves chocolate will most certainly enjoy chocolate candy.

Another reason why giving chocolate candy is a great gift idea is because most people love eating candy. It is a great gift that may not last long, but it will most certainly be enjoyed while it still lasts. Who really needs another sweater or another book for a special occasion? It seems like everyone has enough of those. But who can really have enough chocolate candy? Exactly my point. No one. Everyone can appreciate something that they won't buy themselves.

I love giving gifts that will be really appreciated. I love having people really treasure and enjoy what they are given, and I have yet to go wrong with giving chocolate candy. I have given a variety of kinds of chocolate candy to different people, and I always try to match the candy with the person. So take a few minutes to really think about the person you are buying for and then pick out chocolate candy accordingly.

When I say that you should buy chocolate candy, I do not by any means mean that you should buy a Hershey bar and wrap it for a gift. Go for something more unique and exquisite. People will appreciate the time and creativity you put into finding the right chocolate gift just for them. Look at specialty food shops and other unique shops. Stray away from grocery stores. And don't be afraid to spend some money on your chocolate candy gift. The price really is a reflection of the taste when it comes to chocolate candy. Don't settle for something less than the best when you are giving it to someone you love.


Women Shop Like Santa; Men, Like The Grinch

It has long been argued that men and women differ greatly when it comes to shopping, but how are they really distinct?

The first major difference is that most women actually look forward to holiday shopping, 60%; while only 42% of men do. However, this does not mean women are the only ones shopping. Also, women relate more to Santa Claus than men, while men relate more to the Grinch. 



Everyone hates long lines at the mall, but men seem to be turning more toward online shopping to lessen the hassle. Interestingly enough, while women will do more shopping online, men will actually be spending more money. Men spend an average of $326 online, while women will only spend $284, a difference of 15%. Men also plan to spend $592 this holiday season, with women only spending $547. Men are also more likely to buy large ticket items when compared to women, not only for gifts, but for personal use as well.

There are also other differences in what each sex is actually buying online and in the stores. Men buy more consumer electronics, 27%, compared to women at 19%. So, it is mostly men buying gadgets like digital cameras, video games, or camcorders. However, women are more likely to purchase clothing than men, 77% to 70%, and books, 49% to 36%. While men buying consumer electronics was probably no surprise, women buying more decorations is probably not either, 34% of women compared to only 18% of men. Apparently, women are doing a little more decorating than men.

Women also typically get a jump start on holiday shopping, while men usually wait until December. Only 19% of women wait until December to shop, as compared to 32 % of men. Sixty-five percent of women usually plan to start holiday shopping before Thanksgiving, while only 49% of men do. There are also a larger number of men that wait until the last week before Christmas to buy gifts as compared to women.



Another significant difference between men and women is how they react to shopping budgets. More women, 21%, are concerned about going over their spending budgets on holiday gifts, while only 16% of men share that concern.

There are also the typical stereotypes that have proven to be true. Men usually shop with a specific purchase in mind. However, women will spend more time looking around and pondering purchase decisions. Also, more men are at a loss when it comes to holiday shopping, with 17% feeling frustrated as compared to 8% of women, and confused about gift giving, 8% compared to 3%. A larger number of men are also likely to leave all of the holiday shopping to their spouse as compared to women.


Why do women prefer men much older than them?

It's a common knowledge that girls usually mature faster than boys. In the former USSR countries this process is even more accelerated. Many children here know about a lack of money and food (it's not a secret that Soviet government sold corn while people there were duying from femine), they've seen all that corruption and unfair proceedings of the country, challenges of life. Girls, in particular, often face behavior that in some other countries could be considered harassment: many women can find a job and earn money only if they win favor of their male bosses; often ladies are perceived as merely dolls without brains. 



Basic instinct of self-preservation and aiming for improvement make Russian brides search for better alternatives and men, who can appreciate them. Until recent years there was a tendency among Russian and Ukrainian women to marry men close to their age who were their high school sweethearts or college and university pals. Statistics show that 50-60% of marriages break within first three years of the union. Many women end up leaving the relationship with children, as well as disappointment in men of their age from their home country. As a result, they turn to foreign men who are older and expect them to be more courteous, wise and caring.

An additional factor in searching for older men is also women's psychological perception. Since many girls grow up in "incomplete" families and are abandoned by their fathers, when they search for a relationship, on a subconscious level they veer more towards older partners. In other words, they are looking for a "father figure". They sometimes don’t even realize it, but when they turn to older men, they are looking for someone to be their protector, someone who'd take care of them and give them security they were deprived of as a child.

Although such pressure is getting less in the current days, until recently a lady could be viewed as an old maid unless she got married by the age of 22-23. On the contrary, most men do not face much pressure and begin getting serious about starting a family only close to their 30s. That automatically puts a 7-8 year difference between the partners. Add to it the time that men spent with the "wrong" partner in a previous marriage or relationship, and that puts available male candidates right at their late 30s – early 40s, which creates such a drastic age difference between the ladies and them.
But you should always remember: true love has no boundaries. If you find someone who seems attractive and interests you as a person, be daring and take a chance of finding your Russian bride despite the age and distance.

Why Men Should Get Hair Color Too

We all know that men are the first ones to let their image regimen slide. Sure, men tend to get haircuts like clockwork, but when it comes to getting other salon services, like hair color, most men opt for the easy path of non colorization.


Even though men tend to ignore this salon service, there are many reasons why they should be taking the time and indulging in a little hair color. Aside from the fact that hair color covers gray, it has other benefits that men would love if they only gave it a chance. Here are just a few:

· Color adds body and thickness. One of the easiest ways to plump up thinning hair is to get them colored. This is because color opens the cuticle layer which adds volume and lifts hair away from the scalp, making it fuller. All of this works to make the hair appear thicker and full of life. 

· Color adds interest to short cuts. Most men’s cuts are extremely short so it is almost impossible to add any interest or personal flair to them. But with a little hair color, you can personalize your cut. Color can also adds the illusion of movement and vibrancy when it is caught in the light. 

· Color brightens up too-drab natural hair colors. If your hair color is drab, boring and lifeless, a few strands of HiLites can do wonders to brighten up your hair. This can also help to brighten up your facial features as well. It can even make you look younger and like you’ve been spending some time in the sun.

· Men’s color services are often less expensive than women’s services. If nothing else will draw you, maybe a good deal will. The truth is that men’s color services can often cost considerably less than those of women.

In addition to all of these benefits, color also adds texture and definition to any style. This can help make styling a breeze and actually save you time. So, if you’ve ever wondered if you should get hair color, now is the time to give it a try.


Zodiac Signs and Horoscopes: Who am I compatible with?

Love and compatibility with another is something that we all strive for.  It is something that is talked about in every social circle and in every walk of life.  This notion of love and compatibility is always a hot topic when discussing your “sign” with someone.  One of the main reasons for a person to read their horoscope is to find out about their past, present and future love life.  So it’s only natural for us to wonder which zodiac signs are compatible with one another.  So who are you compatible with?



Aries – is most compatible with Leo & Sagittarius, compatible with Aquarius & Gemini and opposite from Libra.

Taurus – is most compatible with Capricorn & Virgo, compatible with Cancer & Pisces and opposite from Scorpio.

Gemini – is most compatible with Aquarius & Libra, compatible with Aries & Leo and opposite from Sagittarius

Cancer – is most compatible with Pisces & Scorpio, compatible with Taurus & Virgo and opposite from Capricorn

Leo – is most compatible with Aries & Sagittarius, compatible with Gemini & Libra and opposite from Aquarius

Virgo – is most compatible with Capricorn & Taurus, compatible with Cancer & Scorpio and opposite from Pisces

Libra – is most compatible with Aquarius and Gemini, compatible with Leo & Sagittarius and opposite from Aries

Scorpio – is most compatible with Cancer & Pisces, compatible with Capricorn & Virgo and opposite from Taurus

Sagittarius – is most compatible with Aries & Leo, compatible with Aquarius & Libra and opposite from Gemini

Capricorn – is most compatible with Taurus & Virgo, compatible with Pisces & Scorpio and opposite from Cancer

Aquarius – is most compatible with Gemini & Libra, compatible with Aries & Sagittarius and opposite from Leo

Pisces – is most compatible with Cancer & Scorpio, compatible with Capricorn & Taurus and opposite from Virgo

(please note that this is only a suggestion as to the traditional compatibility traits of certain ‘signs’.  This should not be followed as a make or break rule to follow in your love life as there are many factors that come into play when in a true relationship.  These suggestions should be taken as such, as mere suggestions.)


All of your horoscope and zodiac information in one place at Horoscope

EFFECT OF ALCOHOL ON THE MEMBRANES.





The parts which first suffer from alcohol are those expansions of the body which the anatomists call the membranes. "The skin is a membranous envelope. Through the whole of the alimentary surface, from the lips downward, and through the bronchial passages to their minutest ramifications, extends the mucous membrane. The lungs, the heart, the liver, the kidneys are folded in delicate membranes, which can be stripped easily from these parts. If you take a portion of bone, you will find it easy to strip off from it a membranous sheath or covering; if you examine a joint, you will find both the head and the socket lined with membranes. 

The whole of the intestines are enveloped in a fine membrane called  peritoneum . All the muscles are enveloped in membranes, and the fasciculi, or bundles and fibres of muscles, have their membranous sheathing. The brain and spinal cord are enveloped in three membranes; one nearest to themselves, a pure vascular structure, a network of blood-vessels; another, a thin serous structure; a third, a strong fibrous structure. The eyeball is a structure of colloidal humors and membranes, and of nothing else. To complete the description, the minute structures of the vital organs are enrolled in membranous matter." 

These membranes are the filters of the body. "In their absence there could be no building of structure, no solidification of tissue, nor organic mechanism. Passive themselves, they, nevertheless, separate all structures into their respective positions and adaptations." 

Membranous deteriorations.
------------------------- 

In order to make perfectly clear to your mind the action and use of these membranous expansions, and the way in which alcohol deteriorates them, and obstructs their work, we quote again from Dr. Richardson: 

"The animal receives from the vegetable world and from the earth the food and drink it requires for its sustenance and motion. It receives colloidal food for its muscles: combustible food for its motion; water for the solution of its various parts; salt for constructive and other physical purposes. These have all to be arranged in the body; and they are arranged by means of the membranous envelopes. Through these membranes nothing can pass that is not, for the time, in a state of aqueous solution, like water or soluble salts. Water passes freely through them, salts pass freely through them, but the constructive matter of the active parts that is colloidal does not pass; it is retained in them until it is chemically decomposed into the soluble type of matter. When we take for our food a portion of animal flesh, it is first resolved, in digestion, into a soluble fluid before it can be absorbed; in the blood it is resolved into the fluid colloidal condition; in the solids it is laid down within the membranes into new structure, and when it has played its part, it is digested again, if I may so say, into a crystalloidal soluble substance, ready to be carried away and replaced by addition of new matter, then it is dialysed or passed through, the membranes into the blood, and is disposed of in the excretions. 

"See, then, what an all-important part these membranous structures play in the animal life. Upon their integrity all the silent work of the building up of the body depends. If these membranes are rendered too porous, and let out the colloidal fluids of the blood the albumen, for example the body so circumstanced, dies; dies as if it were slowly bled to death. If, on the contrary, they become condensed or thickened, or loaded with foreign material, then they fail to allow the natural fluids to pass through them. They fail to dialyse, and the result is, either an accumulation of the fluid in a closed cavity, or contraction of the substance inclosed within the membrane, or dryness of membrane in surfaces that ought to be freely lubricated and kept apart. In old age we see the effects of modification of membrane naturally induced; we see the fixed joint, the shrunken and feeble muscle, the dimmed eye, the deaf ear, the enfeebled nervous function. 



"It may possibly seem, at first sight, that I am leading immediately away from the subject of the secondary action of alcohol. It is not so. I am leading directly to it. Upon all these membranous structures alcohol exerts a direct perversion of action. It produces in them a thickening, a shrinking and an inactivity that reduces their functional power. That they may work rapidly and equally, they require to be at all times charged with water to saturation. If, into contact with them, any agent is brought that deprives them of water, then is their work interfered with; they cease to separate the saline constituents properly; and, if the evil that is thus started, be allowed to continue, they contract upon their contained matter in whatever organ it may be situated, and condense it. 

"In brief, under the prolonged influence of alcohol those changes which take place from it in the blood corpuscles, extend to the other organic parts, involving them in structural deteriorations, which are always dangerous, and are often ultimately fatal."